What Is the Difference Between Encapsulation and Abstraction in Programming
Abstraction and encapsulation are both key concepts in object-oriented programming. These terms are used for the description of different data operations used in it. Let’s determine what they are and what differences are crucial in them.
Object-oriented programming helps to model real-life scenarios in software. It is a paradigm or methodology for developing a program using classes and objects. A class is a blueprint for creating an object. In other words, it is a structure for creating objects. It consists of attributes and methods. Attributes describe properties or data, while methods describe operations or behavior. For the ease of writing code and understanding it, abstraction and encapsulation are generally used.
What Are Abstraction Principles in Programming
First, what is an abstraction in programming? We know about abstract thinking and abstract art. They both also refer to hiding details and so does abstraction in programming. Generally speaking, abstraction as a programming concept is a representation of the functionality of the code without details. It is the function of hiding details that is the main element of the concept. In program code, the user does not care which lines of code are used to designate a function, only the function itself plays a role. Accordingly, abstraction works in favor of simplifying the code. The advantages of abstraction in object-oriented programming are as follows:
- It reduces the complexity of the code.
- By hiding details and highlighting functions, the code is easier to read.
If you bring analogs with the real world, the abstraction in programming can be compared to the body of your smartphone. You do not need to know what microchips and devices provide the functionality of the gadget. All functions are displayed on the screen without access to the internal content.
OOP-enabled languages help achieve data abstraction using abstract classes and interfaces.
What Is Encapsulation in Programming
The very name of encapsulation already suggests that the data is placed in a capsule due to this concept. In programming, it is the ability to protect your data and methods.
To perform computer encapsulation, modifiers such as „private” and „public” are used. When using these modifiers, you will be able to change the visibility of data or methods. For example, data marked with a “private” modifier will only be visible within its class. If you designate the data with the “public” modifier, the data will be visible both inside and outside of your class.
Which is the advantage of encapsulation, in that case? This concept helps to combine and link data for ease of use and better protection. It also has the advantage that encapsulation combines data and methods into one object that is conditionally taken as a unit.
To use encapsulation in object-oriented programming, you can make the data and its properties private, and use public methods to access them.
Enclosing Main Differences Between Abstraction and Encapsulation in Programming
Let’s highlight these differences in 3 points.
- The difference in definition. While abstraction is the concept of hiding details of data realization showing only functionality, encapsulation is quite another concept that bounds and unites data and methods in a capsule.
- The difference in intention. You use abstraction to make your code simpler while encapsulation is used for hiding data to protect it better.
- The principle of use. For abstraction, abstract classes and interfaces are used. For encapsulation, you use public methods and data that is determined as private.
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There is no confrontation like abstraction vs encapsulation as both concepts can be used in the same code written in one of the object-oriented languages. Moreover, you should learn both these concepts when you want to become a real pro in OOP. We do understand that these concepts are not as much engineering as they are formal logic-based. That’s why our programming homework help will come in handy for you when you study these concepts and need some special assignments to be done. For example, you can apply for our services for your C++ assignment challenges and we’ll help you not just to do the task but also to understand the main principles of abstraction and encapsulation. For the very start, just remember that data abstraction and encapsulation are two concepts in OOP you should understand as ABC. The difference between data abstraction and encapsulation is that the first concept hides implementation details to reduce code complexity, while encapsulation bounds details to protect data. All the special cases of their implementation we’ll describe to you while doing your assignment to ensure you get all the details.